only if you are singing a voice song.
example is some of the mana songs for a bard. IIRC catana of clerity is a voice song. you can have any instroment equipted and it will not matter because this is a voice song.
its much like pure casters with their spell classes: evoc, abj, adj, con, etc...
if a wiz is casting his level 1 shield spell (abj IIRC) then his evoc skill can not raise off of that practice spell for him, but if he is casting his level 1 nuke, then his evoc. can rise.
same thing for bards. if you are singing a percusion song and dont have a drum up, then your skill can not rise.