Unfortunately, you're asking us to teach you everything, and not that we don't want to, but this game requires so much information that it's really impossible to fill you in just through the forum.
The best approach is to just jump into the game. A lot has changed, and that is an understatement. We recommend just starting over (from starting over, you'll reach lv50 in a week, trust me) and joining a linkshell immediately, even before you create a character. Find invites on this forum, take up their offers, create a character on their server, and let the stalking begin.
Those linkshells are full of helpful people and having in-game, real time help is absolutely amazing.
If you want to learn about crafting or any other specific event/activity, the wiki is a good place to start http://wiki.ffxiclopedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Making money is a more difficult subject because of how this game works now. Except for mage jobs, you need very little gil at low levels. Linkshell members might even just give you some gil since the amount you need would be so low. You'll find you quickly reach higher levels where you do start to need gil, but we can't really suggest those here because they will mean nothing to you. Any method that would be open to you at lv1 or even lv50 hardly provides what you can easily earn at lv99, so while we can suggest those, they won't be very helpful for long either.
Here are some low level money making suggestions though: craft copper ingots, farm crystals, farm beehive chips.
Crafting: you can look into it, explore it, but if it's not something you're interested in from the start, it's generally not a path to pursue. Crafting is not some "get rich" scheme. Draw My Character Vlor!